The many issues surrounding the supreme court in the united states

Currently, there are nine Justices on the Court. Before taking office, each Justice must be appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Justices hold office during good behavior, typically, for life.

The many issues surrounding the supreme court in the united states

What is the function of the Supreme Court? What sort of justices best serve the Court's high purposes? How does the Court decide which cases to review, and how does it decide the cases that it does review?

The Court met for the first time on February 2, The Court currently consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices, each with equal voting power to the chief's. The number of justices has varied, beginning with six, then increasing to seven inand finally to nine in Each justice is nominated by the President, confirmed by the Senate, and serves for life.

The Senate confirmation process begins with hearings before the Judiciary Committee and ends with a vote of the full Senate.

The Supreme Court in the American System of Government

A simple majority is required for confirmation. Justices who commit "high crimes or misdemeanors" are subject to impeachment and removal from office.

The Term of the Court begins, by law, on the first Monday in October. In a typical year, decisions are announced in all the argued cases by the end of June. An average of about 7, to 8, petitions are filed with the Court over the course of a single Term; of those only about or so are set for full briefing and oral argument.

In addition to the petitions, another 1, or so applications e. These applications can be acted upon by a single justice. The Court and Constitutional Interpretation "The republic endures and this is the symbol of its faith.

The Court is the highest tribunal in the Nation for all cases and controversies arising under the Constitution or the laws of the United States. As the final arbiter of the law, the Court is charged with ensuring the American people the promise of equal justice under law and, thereby, also functions as guardian and interpreter of the Constitution.

Few other courts in the world have the same authority of constitutional interpretation and none have exercised it for as long or with as much influence.

A century and a half ago, the French political observer Alexis de Tocqueville noted the unique position of the Supreme Court in the history of nations and of jurisprudence.

A more imposing judicial power was never constituted by any people. The United States has demonstrated an unprecedented determination to preserve and protect its written Constitution, thereby providing the American "experiment in democracy" with the oldest written Constitution still in force.

The Constitution of the United States is a carefully balanced document. To assure these ends, the Framers of the Constitution created three independent and coequal branches of government.

That this Constitution has provided continuous democratic government through the periodic stresses of more than two centuries illustrates the genius of the American system of government. This power of "judicial review" has given the Court a crucial responsibility in assuring individual rights, as well as in maintaining a "living Constitution" whose broad provisions are continually applied to complicated new situations.

While the function of judicial review is not explicitly provided in the Constitution, it had been anticipated before the adoption of that document. Prior tostate courts had already overturned legislative acts which conflicted with state constitutions. Moreover, many of the Founding Fathers expected the Supreme Court to assume this role in regard to the Constitution; Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, for example, had underlined the importance of judicial review in the Federalist Papers, which urged adoption of the Constitution.

Hamilton had written that through the practice of judicial review the Court ensured that the will of the whole people, as expressed in their Constitution, would be supreme over the will of a legislature, whose statutes might express only the temporary will of part of the people.

And Madison had written that constitutional interpretation must be left to the reasoned judgment of independent judges, rather than to the tumult and conflict of the political process. If every constitutional question were to be decided by public political bargaining, Madison argued, the Constitution would be reduced to a battleground of competing factions, political passion and partisan spirit.

That oath could not be fulfilled any other way. In retrospect, it is evident that constitutional interpretation and application were made necessary by the very nature of the Constitution. The Founding Fathers had wisely worded that document in rather general terms leaving it open to future elaboration to meet changing conditions.

Maryland, a constitution that attempted to detail every aspect of its own application "would partake of the prolixity of a legal code, and could scarcely be embraced by the human mind.

Its nature, therefore, requires that only its great outlines should be marked, its important objects designated, and the minor ingredients which compose those objects be deduced from the nature of the objects themselves.

The many issues surrounding the supreme court in the united states

The Court does not give advisory opinions; rather, its function is limited only to deciding specific cases. The Justices must exercise considerable discretion in deciding which cases to hear, since more than 7, civil and criminal cases are filed in the Supreme Court each year from the various state and federal courts.

The Supreme Court also has "original jurisdiction" in a very small number of cases arising out of disputes between States or between a State and the Federal Government. When the Supreme Court rules on a constitutional issue, that judgment is virtually final; its decisions can be altered only by the rarely used procedure of constitutional amendment or by a new ruling of the Court.Abortion issues surface in almost every American election, whether it's a local race for school board, a statewide race for governor or a federal contest for Congress or the White House.

Abortion issues have polarized American society since the U.S. Supreme Court legalized the procedure. The legal issues surrounding same-sex marriage in the United States are determined by the nation's federal system of government, in which the status of a person, including marital status, is determined in large measure by the individual states.

Supreme Court of the United States On PetitiOn fOr a Writ Of CertiOrari tO the United StateS COUrt Of aPPealS fOr the ninth CirCUit A It “touch[es] on vital issues of state sovereignty, on the one hand, and federal authority, on the other.” Sturgeon v.

public lands impacts surrounding State, Native, and. The first Chief Justice of the United States was John Jay; the Court's first docketed case was Van Staphorst v.

Maryland (), and its first recorded decision was West v. Barnes (). Perhaps the most controversial of the Supreme Court's early decisions was Chisholm v. Download a map of how the federal courts are split into thirteen circuits. The controversy surrounding the presidential election in raised many issues regarding the behavior of some of the United States Supreme Court Justices.

The Court's decision in the case of Bush v.

The many issues surrounding the supreme court in the united states
The Court and Constitutional Interpretation - Supreme Court of the United States