Please note that COEs must be renewed annually. The COE processing time is approximately 30 days.
The criminal justice system is the set of agencies and processes established by governments to control crime and impose penalties on those who violate laws. There is no single criminal justice system in the United States but rather many similar, individual systems.
How the criminal justice system works in each area depends on the jurisdiction Study guide justice system is in charge: Different jurisdictions have different laws, agencies, and ways of managing criminal justice processes.
State criminal justice systems handle crimes committed within their state boundaries. The federal criminal justice system handles crimes committed on federal property or in more than one state. System Components Most criminal justice systems have five components-law enforcement, prosecution, defense attorneys, courts, and corrections, each playing a key role in the criminal justice process.
Law enforcement officers take reports for crimes that happen in their areas.
Officers investigate crimes and gather and protect evidence. Law enforcement officers may arrest offenders, give testimony during the court process, and conduct follow-up investigations if needed.
Prosecutors are lawyers who represent the state or federal government not the victim throughout the court process-from the first appearance of the accused in court until the accused is acquitted or sentenced. Prosecutors review the evidence brought to them by law enforcement to decide whether to file charges or drop the case.
Prosecutors present evidence in court, question witnesses, and decide at any point after charges have been filed whether to negotiate plea bargains with defendants.
They have great discretion, or freedom, to make choices about how to prosecute the case. Victims may contact the prosecutor's office to find out which prosecutor is in charge of their case, to inform the prosecutor if the defense attorney has contacted the victim 2and to seek other information about the case.
Defense attorneys defend the accused against the government's case. They are ether hired by the defendant or for defendants who cannot afford an attorney they are assigned by the court.
While the prosecutor represents the state, the defense attorney represents the defendant. Courts are run by judges, whose role is to make sure the law is followed and oversee what happens in court.
They decide whether to release offenders before the trial. Judges accept or reject plea agreements, oversee trials, and sentence convicted offenders.
Correction officers supervise convicted offenders when they are in jail, in prison, or in the community on probation or parole. In some communities, corrections officers prepare pre-sentencing reports with extensive background information about the offender to help judges decide sentences. The job of corrections officers is to make sure the facilities that hold offenders are secure and safe.
They oversee the day-to-day custody of inmates. They also oversee the release processes for inmates and sometimes notify victims of changes in the offender's status. How the Criminal Justice Process Works Below is a basic outline of the sequence of events in the criminal justice process, beginning when the crime is reported or observed.
The process may vary according to the jurisdiction, the seriousness of the crime felony or misdemeanor3 whether the accused is a juvenile or an adult, and other factors. Not every case will include all these steps, and not all cases directly follow this sequence.
Many crimes are never prosecuted because they are not reported, because no suspects can be identified, or because the available evidence is not adequate for the prosecutor to build a case.
Entry into the System Report: Law enforcement officers receive the crime report from victims, witnesses, or other parties or witness the crime themselves and make a report. Law enforcement investigates the crime.SCHOOL PATHWAYS TO THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM: THE CONTEXT FOR A PRACTICE GUIDE FOR COURTS AND SCHOOLS SCHOOL PATHAYS TO THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM: THE CONTEXT FOR A PRACTICE GUIDE FOR COURTS AND SCHOOLS Project).
In another example, a recent study by the Council of State Governments’ Justice Center. Higher Education Products & Services.
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