Life of rene descartes and his major contribution to science

It is putting a very high value on one's conjectures, to have a man roasted alive because of them Montaigne, Essais From the earliest days philosophers were critical of Christianity. They found no substantial arguments, and pointed out a number of weaknesses in Christian reasoning. Christians for their part were suspicious of philosophy which they regarded as at best unnecessary and at worst the work of Satan.

Life of rene descartes and his major contribution to science

Because Joachim was a councillor in the Parlement of Brittany in RennesDescartes inherited a modest rank of nobility. Descartes returned to Poitou regularly until In addition to classical studies, science, mathematicsand metaphysics— Aristotle was taught from scholastic commentaries—they studied acting, music, poetry, dancing, riding, and fencing.

In Descartes went to Poitiers, where he took a law degree in In he went to Breda in the Netherlands, where he spent 15 months as an informal student of mathematics and military architecture in the peacetime army of the Protestant stadholder, Prince Maurice ruled — In Breda, Descartes was encouraged in his studies of science and mathematics by the physicist Isaac Beeckman —for whom he wrote the Compendium of Music writtenpublishedhis first surviving work.

He also devised a universal method of deductive reasoningbased on mathematics, that is applicable to all the sciences.

This method, which he later formulated in Discourse on Method and Rules for the Direction of the Mind written by but not published untilconsists of four rules: These rules are a direct application of mathematical procedures.

In addition, Descartes insisted that all key notions and the limits of each problem must be clearly defined. Descartes also investigated reports of esoteric knowledge, such as the claims of the practitioners of theosophy to be able to command nature.

Descartes shared a number of Rosicrucian goals and habits. Like the Rosicrucians, he lived alone and in seclusion, changed his residence often during his 22 years in the Netherlands, he lived in 18 different placespracticed medicine without charge, attempted to increase human longevity, and took an optimistic view of the capacity of science to improve the human condition.

At the end of his life, he left a chest of personal papers none of which has survived with a Rosicrucian physician—his close friend Corneille van Hogelande, who handled his affairs in the Netherlands. For him, this period was a time of hope for a revolution in science.

The English philosopher Francis Bacon —in Advancement of Learninghad earlier proposed a new science of observation and experiment to replace the traditional Aristotelian science, as Descartes himself did later.

In Descartes moved to Paris. There he gambled, rode, fenced, and went to the court, concerts, and the theatre.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

During this time Descartes regularly hid from his friends to work, writing treatisesnow lost, on fencing and metals. He acquired a considerable reputation long before he published anything.

Augustine as a replacement for Jesuit teaching. Be that as it may, within weeks Descartes left for the Netherlands, which was Protestant, and—taking great precautions to conceal his address—did not return to France for 16 years.

Residence in the Netherlands Descartes said that he went to the Netherlands to enjoy a greater liberty than was available anywhere else and to avoid the distractions of Paris and friends so that he could have the leisure and solitude to think.

He had inherited enough money and property to live independently. The Netherlands was a haven of tolerance, where Descartes could be an original, independent thinker without fear of being burned at the stake—as was the Italian philosopher Lucilio Vanini — for proposing natural explanations of miracles—or being drafted into the armies then prosecuting the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

In France, by contrast, religious intolerance was mounting.

Life of rene descartes and his major contribution to science

In the French Parlement passed a decree forbidding criticism of Aristotle on pain of death. Although Mersenne and the philosopher Pierre Gassendi — did publish attacks on Aristotle without suffering persecution they were, after all, Catholic prieststhose judged to be heretics continued to be burned, and laymen lacked church protection.

In addition, Descartes may have felt jeopardized by his friendship with intellectual libertines such as Father Claude Picot d. In Descartes went to the university at Franeker, where he stayed with a Catholic family and wrote the first draft of his Meditations.

Early life and education

He matriculated at the University of Leiden in In his Letter to Voetius ofDescartes made a plea for religious tolerance and the rights of man.

Claiming to write not only for Christians but also for Turks—meaning Muslims, libertines, infidels, deists, and atheists—he argued that, because Protestants and Catholics worship the same God, both can hope for heaven. When the controversy became intense, however, Descartes sought the protection of the French ambassador and of his friend Constantijn Huygens —secretary to the stadholder Prince Frederick Henry ruled — Referring to her death, Descartes said that he did not believe that one must refrain from tears to prove oneself a man.Immanuel Kant, (born April 22, , Königsberg, Prussia [now Kaliningrad, Russia]—died February 12, , Königsberg), German philosopher whose comprehensive and systematic work in epistemology (the theory of knowledge), ethics, and aesthetics greatly influenced all subsequent philosophy, especially the various schools of Kantianism and idealism.

Descartes' main contribution to the history of ideas was his effort to construct a philosophy that would be sympathetic to the new sciences that emerged in the seventeenth century. Philosopher René Descartes was born on March 31, , in La Haye en Touraine, a small town in central France, which has since been .

A Time-line for the History of Mathematics (Many of the early dates are approximates) This work is under constant revision, so come back later.

Please report any errors to me at [email protected] Isaac Newton. Sir Isaac Newton (January 4, - March 31, ) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher who is generally regarded as one of the greatest scientists and mathematicians in history.

Life of rene descartes and his major contribution to science

René Descartes: Facts, Achievements, and Major Contributions René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer. He made significant contributions to the field of philosophy and mathematics during his lifetime.

Descartes' Life and Works (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)