The content is the specific manifestation of that form. This is the content. Therefore, ethical formalism rejects the concern with actual moral acts and concentrates instead on the fundamental sources of moral goodness regardless of their application. Form and Content Any ethical theory has a form, or rule of action, and content, the specific nature of that action.
See Article History Alternative Title: Only the latter is the concern of this article. Participating in the critical spirit and method of Kant, these philosophies are thus opposed to dogmatismto expansive speculative naturalism such as that of Benedict de Spinozathe Dutch Jewish rationalistand, usually, to irrationalism.
A system such as the critical philosophy of Kant freely lends itself to reconstructions of its synthesis according to whatever preferences the private philosophical inclinations of the reader may impose or suggest.
Thus, it constituted a synthesis of elements very different in origin and nature, which tempted students to read their own presuppositions into it.
The critical philosophy has been subjected to a variety of approaches and methods of interpretation. These can be reduced to Kants formalism theory fundamental types: Each of these types—known, respectively, as epistemological, metaphysical, and axiological Kantianism—can, in turn, be subdivided into several secondary approaches.
Historically, epistemological Kantianism included such different attitudes as empirical Kantianism, rooted either in physiological or psychological inquiries; the logistic Kantianism of the Marburg schoolwhich stressed essences and the use of logic; and the realistic Kantianism of the Austrian Alois Riehl.
Metaphysical Kantianism developed from the transcendental idealism of German Romanticism to realisma course followed by many speculative thinkers, who saw in the critical philosophy the foundations of an essentially inductive metaphysicsin accordance with the results of the modern sciences.
The chief representatives of these submovements are identified in the historical sections below. It is essential to distinguish clearly between two periods within the Kantian movement: Hegel and, second, the period from to the present—separated by a time when an antiphilosophical positivisma type of thought that supplanted metaphysics with science, was predominant.
The second period, called specifically Neo-Kantianismwas first of all a conscious reappraisal, in whole or in part, of the theoretical Critique but was also, as a total system, a reaction against positivism.
Earlier Neo-Kantianism reduced philosophy to the theory of knowledge and scientific methodology; systematic Neo-Kantianism, arising at the beginning of the 20th century, expressed itself in attempts at building metaphysical structures. The result was a critique of metaphysics, the value of which lay not in science but in a realm of being accessible only to the pure intellect.
Far from being a description of an external reality, knowledge is, to Kant, the product of the knowing subject. When the data are those of sense experience, the transcendental mental apparatus constitutes human experience or science, or makes it to be such.
It is through the encounter between the forms of human sensory intuition space and time and perceptions that phenomena are formed. The forms arise from the subject himself; the perceptions, however—or the data of experience—have reference, ultimately, to things-in-themselves, which nevertheless remain unknowable, inasmuch as, in order to be known at all, it is necessary for things to appear clothed, as it were, in the forms of human intuition and, thenceforth, to present themselves as phenomena and not as noumena.
The thing-in-itself, accordingly, indicates the limit and not the object of knowledge. These theses of Kant provoked criticism among the followers of Christian Wolff, the Leibnizian rationalist, and doubts among the disciples of Kant, which, as they further developed into systems, marked the first period of Kantianism.
Their doubts revolved around two points: Regarding the first point, they claimed that Kant had accepted the three faculties and their respective transcendental characteristics without investigation, in which case this structure should be viewed, in accordance with the preliminary character of the Critique, as a triple manifestation of a single fundamental faculty.
For this reason the distinction between the levels of intuition and understanding or between the receptivity and spontaneity of the mind had to be rejected—for the three transcendentals—space and time, the categories, and the ideas of reason—were not existents but were only functions of thought.
Finally, these disciples argued that the existence of a single transcendental subject, the Ego, would render the thing-in-itself superfluous and even pernicious for the scientific treatment of epistemology. Christian von Wolff, engraving by J. Reinhold, it constituted the faculty of representation; for the Lithuanian idealist Salomon Maimonit was a mental capacity for constructing objects; for the idealist Jakob S.
Schulzeit was experience in the sense intended by Hume, a volley of discrete sense impressions; for the theory of knowledge of the outstanding ethical idealist Johann G. Fichteit was the original positing of the Ego and the non-Ego, which meant, in turn, in the case of the aesthetic idealist F.
Removed from the main current of Kantianism was the empirically oriented thinker Jakob Friedrich Fries the one figure in this group who was not an idealist in the true sensewho interpreted the a priori in terms of psychological faculties and elements.
Having earlier renounced these apostates on a large scale, Kant, at the end of his life, prepared a new exposition of the transcendental philosophy the second part of his Opus Postumumwhich showed that he was ready tacitly to accede to the criticisms of his adversaries.
Nineteenth-century Neo-Kantianism The rejection of all of philosophy by positivism had the anomalous effect of evoking an awakening of Kantianism, for many thinkers wished to give to positivism itself a philosophical foundation that, while respecting the phenomenological attitude, would yet be hostile to the metaphysics of positivism, which was usually a tacit, but inconsequential, materialism.
It was justifiably held that Kant could provide such a foundation because of his opposition to metaphysics and his limitation of scientific knowledge to the sphere of phenomena. The complexity of the critical philosophy was such that the theoretical criticism could be approached in diverse ways and that, through the facts themselves, diverse interpretations of the Critique of Pure Reason could be obtained.
In the order of their origin though not of their worth or importancethere thus arose currents of Kantianism that were empiricist, logicist, realist, metaphysical, axiological, and psychological—of which the most important survived into the 20th century.Ethical formalism is a type of ethical theory which defines moral judgments in terms of their logical form (e.g., as "laws" or "universal prescriptions") rather than their content (e.g., as judgments about what actions will best promote human well-being).
The term also often carries critical connotations.
Biography Early Life. Feyerabend was born in in Vienna, where he attended primary and high initiativeblog.com this period he got into the habit of frequent reading, developed an interest in theatre, and started singing lessons.
German idealism is the name of a movement in German philosophy that began in the s and lasted until the s. The most famous representatives of this movement are Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. While there are important differences between these figures, they all share a commitment to.
Vetenskapsteori Denna sida är uppdaterad (Titta gärna på vår engelska uppdaterade sida om vetenskapsteori: initiativeblog.com om "Philosophy of Science". Här återfinns de viktigaste hörnstenarna i vetenskapsteori. Kantianism: Kantianism, either the system of thought contained in the writings of the epoch-making 18th-century philosopher Immanuel Kant or those later philosophies that arose from the study of Kant’s writings and drew their inspiration from his principles.
Only the latter is the concern of this article. The. Kant and Formalism Immanuel Kant is one of the more important promoters of ethical formalism. In his view, no ethical theory can worry about the actual content of specific moral acts — it must make rules based exclusively on the constitution of the human will itself.