Discussion question q a policing perspective theory and application

In both the private and public sectors, performance measurement is considered a necessary component of good management. Experts in the field of management consulting have commented on the concept of performance measurement, with Peter Drucker, the well-known management guru stating:

Discussion question q a policing perspective theory and application

We value your privacy Abstract Summary This article reviews recently published studies on racial profiling and critiques both their methods and conclusions.

Using the conceptual framework for police research presented by Bernard and Engel, it reviews a number of theories that may explain racial disparities in the rates of police stops. The authors argue that to explain police behavior better, theoretical models must guide future data collection efforts.

This article reviews recently published studies on racial profiling and critiques both their methods and conclusions. Other experts have challenged the accuracy of these profiles, and still others have argued that, even if accurate, all race-based decision making is inappropriate Harris,a; Kennedy, In this article, we argue that a similar unsupported assumption has strongly influenced academic research on racial profiling.

We review 13 studies that collected data on police-citizen contacts during traffic and field interrogation stops, each of which found racial disparities in the aggregate rates of such stops. The problem with interpreting these findings is that the mere presence of disparity in the aggregate rate of stops does not, in itself, demonstrate racial prejudice, any more than racial disparity in prison populations demonstrates racial prejudice by sentencing judges.

However, since there is no agreement about what constitutes a reliable and valid base rate, all these conclusions are premature. Ultimately, the lack of a reliable and valid base rate is related to the fact that these studies had no coherent theoretical framework to guide the data collection efforts or to interpret their results.

Discussion question q a policing perspective theory and application

Specifically, these studies failed to measure any explanatory factors beyond the simple aggregate rate of stops. This diverges from almost all other research on policing conducted in the past 30 years, which has focused on explaining police behavior.

In contrast, the data collection efforts to examine racial profiling have neglected the need to explain how and why officers make decisions.

We begin this article with a brief discussion of racial prejudice and racial profiling, to distinguish between the two and frame the problem. Second, we review 13 recent studies on racial profiling and critique both their methods and their conclusions.

Third, we present a conceptual framework for police research based on a recent approach to criminal justice theory presented by Bernard and Engel Fourth, within the context of this conceptual framework, we review a number of general theories that may explain racial disparities in the rates of police stops, in each case identifying the specific intervening variables involved.

Finally, we argue that collecting data on these variables should be the focus of future research on racial profiling, since only in that way can police decision making in traffic and field interrogation stops be explained.

Since that time, criminal justice researchers have focused on determining the relative influence of legal and extralegal factors on decision making.

The bulk of this research was driven by early findings from qualitative ethnographic field studies of the police Bittner, ; Rubinstein, ; Skolnick, ; Van Maanen,along with sociological and conflict theories describing the importance of social, economic, and political factors in decision making in the criminal justice system Black, ; Quinney, The recent emphasis on research surrounding the use of racial profiling can be viewed as an extension of this larger focus that has been historically found in policing research.

Prior to the s, racial prejudice was still the basis for many state and local laws, and many police administrators and police officers argued publicly that racial prejudice was appropriate and reasonable. In contrast to racial prejudice, racial profiling is relatively recent.

The first racial profile originated with the attempt to interdict the flow of drugs from Miami up Interstate 95 to the cities of the Northeast Harris, a. Advocates of this policy argued that it produced more efficient crime control than random stops, measured in terms of detecting and seizing illegal drugs and arresting drug couriers.

Others, however, challenged the factual basis for the drug-courier profile itself, arguing that traffic stops of black drivers produce no more arrests or drug seizures than traffic stops of white drivers and that the profile itself creates a self-fulfilling prophecy because it results in higher arrests, convictions, and imprisonments of blacks Harris,a; Kennedy, Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics, Natural Rights Theories, and Religious Ethics A “utilitarian” argument, in the strict sense, is one what alleges that we ought to do is the moral theory that holds that the morally right action, the act that we have a moral duty to do, is the .

Information sharing is the lifeblood of policing, yet information/knowledge sharing within and across organizations remains problematic.

This article elaborated on previous research on organizational information culture and its impact on information use outcomes in policing by examining perceived impediments to information sharing of officers in three Canadian police organizations. CJA Week 3 Learning Team Discussion Question Q&A Policing Perspective Theory and Application.

Main. Home. Law homework help. Report Issue. CJA Week 3 Learning Team Discussion Question Q&A Policing Perspective Theory and Application / UOP. Purchase the answer to view it. issues that are important, both from an academic perspective (that is, intellectually interesting), and from a practical perspective (that is, useful for improving the .

By conflict theory, I am referring to the general body of scholarly literature that has explored the functions, formation, escalation, de-escalation, and resolution of conflict. See, e.g., LEWIS A. CJA is a online tutorial store we provides CJA Week 3 Team Assignment Discussion Question QA Policing Perspective Theory and Application.

Discussion Questions Policing Perspective: theory And Application | Researchomatic