Developmental psychology physical cognitive and psychosocial essay

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Developmental psychology physical cognitive and psychosocial essay

Statistical Infrequency AO1 Under this definition of abnormality, a person's trait, thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it is rare or statistically unusual. With this definition it is necessary to be clear about how rare a trait or behavior needs to be before we class it as abnormal For instance one may say that an individual who has an IQ below or above the average level of IQ in society is abnormal.

However this definition obviously has limitations, it fails to recognize the desirability of the particular behavior. Going back to the example, someone who has an IQ level above the normal average wouldn't necessarily be seen as abnormal, rather on the contrary they would be highly regarded for their intelligence.

This definition also implies that the presence of abnormal behavior in people should be rare or statistically unusual, which is not the case. Instead, any specific abnormal behavior may be unusual, but it is not unusual for people to exhibit some form of prolonged abnormal behavior at some point in their lives.

AO3 Strengths This definition can provide an objective way, based on data, to define abnormality if an agreed cut-off point can be identified. Limitations However, this definition fails to distinguish between desirable and undesirable behavior.

Many rare behaviors or characteristics e.

Erik Erikson | Psychosocial Stages | Simply Psychology

Some characteristics are regarded as abnormal even though they are quite frequent. Their behavior may be incomprehensible to others or make others feel threatened or uncomfortable.

Social behavior varies markedly when different cultures are compared. For example, it is common in Southern Europe to stand much closer to strangers than in the UK.

Voice pitch and volume, touching, direction of gaze and acceptable subjects for discussion have all been found to vary between cultures. With this definition, it is necessary to consider: AO3 Strength This defintion gives a social dimension to the idea of abnormality, which offers an alternative to the 'sick in the head' individual.

Limitations Social norms can vary from culture to culture. This means that what is considered normal in one culture may be considered abnormal in another. This definition of abnormality is an example of cultural relativism.

One limitation of the deviation of social norms definition is that norms can vary over time. This means that behavior that would have been defined as abnormal in one era is no longer defined as abnormal in another.

For example drink driving was once considered acceptable but is now seen as socially unacceptable whereas homosexuality has gone the other way. Until homosexuality was considered a psychological disorder by the World Health Organization WHO but today is considered acceptable.

Failure to Function Adequately AO1 Failure to function adequately FFA refers to abnormality that prevent the person from carrying out the range of behaviors that society would expect from them, such as getting out of bed each day, holding down a job, and conducting successful relationships etc.

These include personal distress e. The more features of personal dysfunction a person has the more they are considered abnormal. To assess how well individuals cope with everyday life, clinician use the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale GAFwhich rates their level of social, occupational and psychological functioning.

AO3 Strengths The definition provides a practical checklist of seven criteria individuals can use to check their level of abnormality. It matches the sufferers' perceptions. As most people seeking clinical help believe that they are suffering from psychological problems that interfere with the ability to function properly, it supports the definition.

Limitations FFA might not be linked to abnormality but to other factors. Failure to keep a job may be due to the economic situation not to psychopathology. Cultural relativism is one limitation; what may be seen as functioning adequately in one culture may not be adequate in another.

This is likely to result in different diagnoses in different cultures. FFA is context dependent; not eating can be seen as failing to function adequately but prisoners on hunger strikes making a protest can be seen in a different light.Note: The terms in which a course is normally taught is at the end of each description (F=Fall, Sp=Spring, Su=Summer).

Jump to TN eCampus Courses. Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human was first created by the Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget (–).

The theory deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans gradually come to acquire, construct, and use it. Piaget's theory is mainly known as a developmental stage theory.

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Developmental psychology physical cognitive and psychosocial essay

Paper presented at the 7th International Congress of the Association for Pre- and Perinatal Psychology and Health.

This essay is a précis of a book in preparation which has the tentative title: Understanding The Moral Imperative For Violence: Consequences of the "Unbonded" Child and Gender Inequality. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY INTERACTIVE Readings in Educational Psychology.

Developed by: W. Huitt Last updated: November AO1. Under this definition of abnormality, a person's trait, thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it is rare or statistically unusual.

Peer-Reviewed Developmental Psychology Journals