A trade-mark is a word or wordsa design, or a combination of these, to identify the goods or services of one person or organization.
Selected bibliography Consumers have a right to expect that the foods they purchase and consume will be safe and of high quality. They have a right to voice their opinions about the food control procedures, standards and activities that governments and industry use to ascertain that the food supply has these characteristics.
While consumers, governments and others play an important part in ensuring food safety and quality, in free-market societies the ultimate responsibility for investing the physical and managerial resources that are necessary for implementing appropriate controls lies with the food industry - the industry that continuously oversees the manufacture and processing of foods, from raw ingredients to finished product, day in and day out.
While this is true, private enterprise recognizes that its success - measured in terms of profitability - is completely dependent on consumer satisfaction. A reflection of consumers' satisfaction is their continuing purchase of the same products.
Food manufacturers and marketers thus have an investment in their product identities brand names that they naturally wish to protect. It is in their interest, therefore, to establish and administer the controls that ensure that their products do indeed meet consumer expectations of safety and quality.
Food industry's view of food control The food industry takes a broad view of the term food control, which includes a large number of factors such as: Some of these factors, such as value, are exclusively in the domain of industry and consumers; while others, such as safety, are shared interests of government, industry and consumers.
Setting and implementing food standards At the heart of all food control activities is the establishment of safety, quality and labelling standards.
These should be established on the broadest possible scale, in the recognition that food production and marketing is truly a global industry. Governments and intergovernmental organizations such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission have the principal role in establishing certain food control standards.
In establishing safety standards, it is important that governments allow industry, the scientific community and the public to contribute information and ideas.
Standards and guidelines should be sufficiently flexible to meet the needs of changing technology. At the same time, governments should apply those controls that will assure real and meaningful safety benefits rather than merely perceived benefits.
Any safety standards that are developed have real costs for governments, industry and consumers. Governments bear an obligation to monitor and enforce safety standards. Imposing stringent standards usually increases the government's need for resources to enforce those standards; therefore standards must be carefully set to take enforcement costs into account.
Industry bears the primary responsibility for implementing safety standards and must invest the resources such as staff time, systems, training and equipment required to put the standards into practice.
Ultimately, consumers will pay the costs for food safety standards both through taxes to pay for the government control authorities' activities and through food prices, which must reflect all the costs of production, including the cost of quality assurance.
Control of food safety and quality encompasses a broad number of factors, and governments must carefully select the areas in which they will set standards. In particular, quality includes attributes of food that are market concerns rather than public health matters.
Governments should focus their attention and resources on the public health aspects of quality and on those market-related aspects of quality and labelling that will protect consumers against fraud and misleading claims.
Governments have three additional responsibilities related to the establishment of food controls. First, they should conduct research into testing and evaluation methods for determining the safety of food ingredients and processes.
Governments need to have a good research base because food controls should only be imposed on a sound scientific basis. Second, governments need to audit industry performance to ensure that companies are complying with standards and that standards are being uniformly applied.
This involves training inspection personnel so that they have a good understanding of the technologies and processes involved, as well as conducting inspections in an even-handed and fair manner.
Third, governments must communicate with industry and consumers about food controls. It is important that all affected industry members know their obligations so that they can comply.
It is also important that consumers know what steps are being taken on their behalf to prevent misconceptions. Further, consumers make a contribution to food safety in handling food after purchase and need to be informed about proper procedures.
Consumers and industry must have an opportunity to raise questions and comment about the appropriateness of food control standards.
In those areas in which governments exercise premarket approval,2 this should be done in a timely manner in order to facilitate the application of new technology.
The manufacturers of such food additives must submit scientific data that demonstrate that these;: The standards of safety are established by laws and regulations and include considerations of various types of toxicity, ranging from carcinogenicity and reproductive effects to effects on digestion.
According to Title 21, Part of the United States Code of Federal Regulations, a substance may be termed safe when there is "a reasonable certainty in the minds of competent scientists that the substance is not harmful under the intended conditions of use". Once a food additive is determined to be safe, it may be used in any food application for which it is approved.
Industry's efforts to ensure quality Because of their necessarily intimate involvement with the science, technology, logistics and management disciplines required to make the food supply system work, food manufacturers must be involved in the standard-setting process at both the national and international levels.
They are obliged to lend their knowledge of the food supply system to this process to help guarantee its efficiency and effectiveness and to ensure that it results in a supply of safe products.
This involvement is beneficial to consumers and governments as well as to industry, and this exchange of information should be facilitated by governments. To provide safe products, food industry management requires an organized way of defining and controlling the relationships of critical factors in the complete food supply system, including product conception, manufacturing and distribution and customer satisfaction.
It begins when the product is conceived and continues in the selection and purchasing of raw materials and in processing, packaging, distribution and marketing.
It is axiomatic that safety and quality must be designed into a product; they cannot be achieved by end-product testing. Therefore, quality assurance begins with the design and development of food products.First, they should conduct research into testing and evaluation methods for determining the safety of food ingredients and processes.
Governments need to have a good research base because food controls should only be imposed on a sound scientific basis. Guidelines on Labelling of Pre-packed Food, Food Additives, and Food Processing Aids. The Circular canned food, syrups and sweeteners, and processed and packed meat, poultry, and seafood of Industry and Trade issue the inter-ministerial circular on detail guidance on labelling of packed foods;.
Serving size is often used as a tool to intentionally create misleading food labels. Health Claims On Food Labels Most of us assume that the government is looking out for our best interests and that food manufacturers are subjected to regular and ongoing inspections.
The research found that consumers generally had a good appreciation of the range of information that is available on packaged foods. This information was used primarily to assist in determining product choice while shopping and to learn more about selected products and to seek reassurance that it was a 'safe choice'.
The following paragraph is an excerpt from FDA "Instructions for Establishment Registration and Processing Filing for Acidified and Low-Acid Canned Foods ". "Improperly processed low-acid canned foods or acidified foods present life-threatening hazards; therefore registration of those establishments which manufacture, process, or pack low-acid.
Health Concerns & Misleading Labelling Introduction With the rise in the levels of general obesity, consumers are becoming increasingly health conscious with regard to the food they purchase, particularly in terms of canned and processed goods available in abundance in the grocery stores an.